University of Connecticut University of UC Title Fallback Connecticut


Google Scholar metrics: Citations 7380, h-index = 37, i50-index = 28


Phenotypic Evolution: A Reaction Norm Perspective. C.D. Schlichting and M. Pigliucci. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.  387 pp., 180 figures

(9 published reviews, see below: reviews of S & P)




Journal articles (refereed publications numbered sequentially)

Published/in press

64. †Mitchell, M., †T. E. Moore, †H. K. Mollmann, J. E. Carlson, †K. Mocko, H. Martinez-Cabrera, C. Adams, J. A. Silander Jr., C. S. Jones, C.D. Schlichting, K. E. Holsinger. 2015. Functional traits in parallel evolutionary radiations and trait-environment associations in the Cape Floristic region of South Africa. American Naturalist 185: 525-537. DOI: 10.1086/680051

63. Murren, C. J., J. R. Auld, H. S. Callahan, C. K. Ghalambor, †C. A. Handelsman, M. A. Heskel, J. Kingsolver, †H. J. Maclean, J. Masel, H. Maughan, D. W. Pfennig, R. A. Relyea, †S. Seiter, E. C. Snell-Rood, U. K. Steiner, C. D. Schlichting. In press. Heredity. DOI: 10.1038/hdy.2015.8

62. Schlichting C. D. and M.A. Wund. 2014. Phenotypic plasticity and epigenetic marking: an assessment of evidence for genetic accommodation. Evolution 68:656-672. DOI: 10.1111/evo.12348

61. Murren, C. J., †H. J. Maclean, S. E. Diamond, U. K. Steiner, †M. A. Heskel, †C. A. Handelsman, C. K. Ghalambor, J. R. Auld, H. S. Callahan, D. W. Pfennig, R. A. Relyea, C. D. Schlichting, and J. Kingsolver. 2014. Evolutionary change in continuous reaction norms. American Naturalist 183: 453-467. DOI: 10.1086/675302

60. Jones, C.S., H.I. Martinez Cabrera, A.B. Nicotra, †K. Mocko, E.M. Marais, C. D. Schlichting. 2013. Leaf traits and their integration in Pelargonium as indicators of past, and predictors of future, responses to climate change. American Journal of Botany 100: 1306-1321.

59. McKeon, S.N., C.D. Schlichting, M.M. Póvoa, and J.E. Conn. 2013. Ecological suitability and spatial distribution of five Anopheles species in Amazonian Brazil. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 88:1079-1086.

58. †Martinez Cabrera, H.I., C. D. Schlichting, J.A. Silander, C.S. Jones. 2012. Low levels of climate niche conservatism may explain clade diversity patterns in the South African genus Pelargonium L’Her. (Geraniaceae). American Journal of Botany 99:954-960.

57. Pfennig, D.W., M.A. Wund, E.C. Snell-Rood, †T. Cruickshank, C. D. Schlichting, and A.P. Moczek. 2010. Phenotypic plasticity’s impacts on diversification and speciation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 25(8): 459-467.

56.  Jones, C. S., F. T. Bakker, C.D. Schlichting and A. B. Nicotra. 2009. Leaf shape evolution in the South African genus Pelargonium L’ Hér. (Geraniaceae). Evolution 63: 479-497.

55. Schlichting, C.D. 2008. Hidden reaction norms, cryptic genetic variation and evolvability. In The Year in Evolutionary Biology 2008. C. D. Schlichting and T. A. Mousseau, Eds. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1133: 187-203.

54. Nicotra, A. B., M.J. Cosgrove, A. Cowling, C. S. Jones and C.D. Schlichting. 2008. Leaf shape linked to photosynthetic rates and temperature optima in South African Pelargonium species. Oecologia 154:625-635.

53. Nicotra, A. B., †J. P. Hermes, C. S. Jones and C.D. Schlichting. 2007. Geographic variation and plasticity to water and nutrients in Pelargonium australe. New Phytologist 176:136-149.

52. Pigliucci, M., C. J. Murren and C.D. Schlichting. 2006. Phenotypic plasticity and evolution by genetic assimilation. Journal of Experimental Biology 209: 2362-2367.

51. Póvoa, M.M., R.T.L. de Souza, R.N.L. Lacerda, E. Santa Rosa, D. Galiza, J.R. de Souza, R.A. Wirtz, C.D. Schlichting and J.E. Conn. 2006. The importance of Anopheles albitarsis E and An. darlingi in human malaria transmission in Boa Vista, state of Roraima, Amazonian Brazil.Mem Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 101: 163-168.

50. Núñez-Farfán, J. and C.D. Schlichting. 2005. Natural selection in Potentilla glandulosa revisited. Evolutionary Ecology Research 7: 105-119.

49. †Engelmann, K.E. and C.D. Schlichting. 2005. Coarse- versus fine-grained water stress in Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae). American Journal of Botany 92: 101-106.

47. Póvoa, M.M., J.E. Conn, C.D. Schlichting, J.C.O.F. Amaral, M.N.O. Segura, A.N.M. da Silva, C.C.B. dos Santos, R.N.L. Lacerda, R.T.L. de Souza, D. Galiza, E.P. Santa Rosa, R.A. Wirtz. 2003. Malaria vectors, epidemiology, and the re-emergence of Anopheles darlingi in Belém, Pará, Brazil. Journal of Medical Entomology 40: 379-386.

44. Schlichting, C.D. 2003. The origins of differentiation via phenotypic plasticity. Evolution & Development 5:98-105.

42. Morales, E. A., F. R. Trainor and C.D. Schlichting. 2002. Evolutionary and ecological implications of plastic responses of algae. Constancea 83:

40. C.D. Schlichting and H. Smith. 2002. Phenotypic plasticity: linking molecular mechanisms with evolutionary outcomes. Evolutionary Ecology 16:189-211.

38. Conn, J.E., R.C. Wilkerson, M.N.O. Segura, R.T.L. de Souza, C.D. Schlichting, R.A. Wirtz, M.M. Povoa. 2002. Emergence of a new Neotropical malaria vector facilitated by human migration and changes in land use. American J. Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 66: 18-22.

37. Núñez-Farfán, J. and C.D. Schlichting. 2001. Evolution in changing environments: The ‘synthetic’ work of Clausen, Keck and Hiesey. Quarterly Review of Biology 76: 433-457.

35. Pigliucci, M., G.A. Tyler III, and C.D. Schlichting. 1999. Mutational effects on constraints on character evolution and phenotypic plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of Genetics 77: 95-103.

34. Pigliucci, M., and C.D. Schlichting. 1998. Reaction norms of Arabidopsis. V. Flowering time controls phenotypic architecture in response to nutrient stress. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 11:285-301.

33. Callahan, H.S., M. Pigliucci, and C.D. Schlichting. 1997. Developmental phenotypic plasticity: where ecology and evolution meet molecular biology. BioEssays 19:519-525.

32. Nicotra, A.B., R.L. Chazdon, and C.D. Schlichting. 1997. Patterns of genotypic variation and phenotypic plasticity of light response in two tropical Piper species. American Journal of Botany 84:1542-1552.

31. Pigliucci, M., P. diIorio, C.D. Schlichting. 1997. Phenotypic plasticity of growth trajectories in two species of Lobelia in response to nutrient availability. Journal of Ecology 85: 265-276.

30. Pigliucci, M., and C.D. Schlichting. 1997. On the limits of quantitative genetics for the study of phenotypic evolution. Acta Biotheoretica 45:143-160.

29. Schlichting, C.D., and V.A. Delesalle. 1997. Stressing the differences between male and female functions in hermaphroditic plants. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12:51-52.

28. Pigliucci, M., C.D. Schlichting, C. Jones, K. Schwenk. 1996. Developmental reaction norms: the interactions among allometry, ontogeny and plasticity. Plant Species Biology 11:69-85.

27. Pigliucci, M., and C.D. Schlichting. 1996. Reaction norms of Arabidopsis.  IV. Relationships between plasticity and fitness. Heredity 76:427-436.

26. Pigliucci, M. and C.D. Schlichting. 1995. Ontogenetic reaction norms in Lobelia siphilitica (Lobeliaceae): response to shading. Ecology 76:2134-2144.

25. Schlichting, C.D., and M. Pigliucci. 1995. Lost in phenotypic space: environment-dependent resemblance among Phlox populations.  International Journal of Plant Science 156:542-546.

24. Pigliucci, M., and C.D. Schlichting. 1995. Reaction norms of Arabidopsis.  III. Geographic variation and response to nutrients in 26 populations. American Journal of Botany. 82:1117-1125.

23. Via, S., R. Gomulkiewicz, G. de Jong, S.E. Scheiner, C.D. Schlichting and P. van Tienderen. 1995.  Adaptive phenotypic plasticity: consensus and controversy. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10:212-217.

22. Pigliucci, M., C.D. Schlichting, and J. Whitton. 1995.  Reaction norms of Arabidopsis. II. Response to stress and unordered environmental variation. Functional Ecology 9:537-547.

21. Pigliucci, M., J. Whitton, and C.D. Schlichting. 1995. Reaction norms of Arabidopsis. I. Plasticity of characters and correlations across water, nutrient and light gradients. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 8: 421-438.

20. Schlichting, C.D., and M. Pigliucci. 1995. Gene regulation, quantitative genetics, and the evolution of reaction norms.  Evolutionary Ecology 9:154-168.

18. Schlichting, C.D., and M. Pigliucci. 1993. Control of phenotypic plasticity via regulatory genes. American Naturalist 142:366-370.

17. Schlichting, C.D., and B. Devlin. 1992. Pollen and ovule sources affect seed production of Lobelia cardinalis (Lobeliaceae). American Journal of Botany 79:891-898.

16. Quesada, M., C.D. Schlichting, J.A. Winsor, and A.G. Stephenson. 1991. Effects of genotype on pollen performance in Cucurbita pepo. Sexual Plant Reproduction 4:208-214.

15. Schlichting, C.D., A.G. Stephenson, L.A. Small, J.A. Winsor. 1990.  Pollen loads and progeny vigor in Cucurbita pepo: the next generation. Evolution 44:1358‑1372.

14. Schlichting, C.D., and D.A. Levin. 1990.  Phenotypic plasticity in Phlox. III. Variation among natural populations of P. drummondii. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 3:411‑428.

13. Schlichting, C.D. 1989. Phenotypic integration and environmental change. BioScience 39:460‑464.

12. Schlichting, C.D. 1989. Phenotypic plasticity in Phlox. II. Plasticity of character correlations.  Oecologia 78:496‑501.

11. Schlichting, C.D., and B. Devlin. 1989. Male and female reproductive success in the hermaphroditic plant Phlox drummondii. The American Naturalist 133:212‑227.

9. Schlichting, C.D., and D.A. Levin. 1988. Phenotypic plasticity in Phlox. I. Wild and cultivated populations of P. drummondii. American Journal of Botany 75:161‑169.

8. Stephenson, A.G., J.A. Winsor, C.D. Schlichting, L.E. Davis. 1988. Pollen competition, non‑random fertilization and progeny fitness: a reply to Charlesworth. American Naturalist 132:303‑308.

7. Schlichting, C.D., A.G. Stephenson, J.A. Winsor, L.E. Davis. 1987.  Pollen competition and offspring variability. Evolutionary Trends in Plants 1:35‑39.

6. Schlichting, C.D. 1986. The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17:667‑693.

5. Schlichting, C.D., and D.A. Levin. 1986.  Phenotypic plasticity: an evolving plant character. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 29:37‑47.

4. Schlichting, C.D., and D.A. Levin. 1986.  Effects of inbreeding on phenotypic plasticity in Phlox drummondiiTheoretical and Applied Genetics 72:114‑119.

2. Bixby, P.J., L.E. Davis, C.D. Schlichting, A.G. Stephenson. 1986. Correlations between rapid germination and seedling vigor in the common zucchini (Cucurbita pepo). Proc. Pennsylvania Academy of Science 60:33‑35.

1. Schlichting, C.D., and D.A. Levin. 1984. Phenotypic plasticity of annual Phlox: tests of some hypotheses. American Journal of Botany 71:252‑260.

† grad student authors

Book Chapters

48. Schlichting, C.D., and C.J. Murren. 2004. Evolvability and the raw materials for adaptation.  pp. 18-29 in: Molecular Genetics and Ecology of Plant Adaptation. Q. C. B. Cronk, J. Whitton, R. H. Ree and I. E. P. Taylor (eds.) Ottawa, Ontario, NRC Research Press.

46. Schlichting, C.D. 2004. The diversity of complexity. pp. 3-17 in: Phenotypic Integration: Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes. M. Pigliucci and K. A. Preston, Oxford University Press.

45. Schlichting, C.D.  2003. Environment. Pp. 108-113 in: Keywords and Concepts in Evolutionary Developmental Biology. B.K. Hall and W.M. Olson, editors. Harvard University Press.

39. Schlichting, C.D. 2004. The role of phenotypic plasticity in diversification. Pp. 191-200 in: Phenotypic Plasticity: Functional and Conceptual Approaches, T.J. DeWitt and S.M. Scheiner, eds. Oxford University Press.

36. Murren, C.J., R. Julliard, C.D. Schlichting, and J. Clobert. 2001. Dispersal, individual phenotype and phenotypic plasticity. pp. 261-272 in: Dispersal, J. Clobert, J.D. Nichols, E. Danchin, and A. Dhondt, eds. Oxford University Press.

19. Stephenson, A.G., M.R. Quesada, C.D. Schlichting and J.A. Winsor. 1995. Consequences of variation in pollen load size. pp 233-244 in: Experimental and molecular approaches to plant biosystematics, P.C. Hoch and A.G. Stephenson (eds.). Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Bot. Garden, vol 53.

10. Stephenson, A.G., J.A. Winsor, and C.D. Schlichting. 1988. Evidence for non‑random fertilization in the common zucchini, Cucurbita pepo.  pp. 333‑338 in: Sexual Reproduction in Higher Plants.  M. Cresti, R. Gori, E. Pacini (eds.). Springer‑Verlag, Berlin.

3. Schlichting, C.D. 1986.  Environmental stress reduces pollen quality in Phlox: compounding the fitness deficit.  pp. 483‑488 in: Biotechnology and Ecology of Pollen, D. Mulcahy, G. Bergamini Mulcahy, E. Ottaviano (eds.). Springer‑Verlag, NY.



43. Schlichting, C.D. 2002. Phenotypic plasticity in plants (introduction to special issue). Plant Species Biology 17: 85-88

41. Schlichting, C.D. 2002. Phenotypic Plasticity. Independent entry, pp. 883-886 in: The Encyclopedia of Evolution. M. Pagel, editor.


Book Reviews

1985  Review of Evolutionary Ecology, B. Shorrocks, ed. Brittonia 37:234.

1988  Review of Differentiation Patterns in Higher Plants, K.M. Urbanska, ed. Plant Genetics Newsletter 5(1):6‑7.

1989  Review of Plant Reproductive Ecology: Patterns and Strategies, J. and L. Lovett Doust, eds.  Plant Genetics Newsletter 5(3):19.

1992  Review of Evolutionary Genetics and Environmental Stress, A. Hoffman and P. Parsons.  Plant Genetics Newsletter.

1993  Review of Evolutionary Developmental Biology, B. Hall. Plant Genetics Newsletter 10(1):8-9.

2003  Environment rules. (Review of Developmental Plasticity and Evolution, M.J. West-Eberhard) Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18: 496-497.

2006  Review of The Plausibility of Life: Resolving Darwin’s Dilemma (2005) by Marc W. Kirschner & John C. Gerhart, Yale University Press. Quarterly Review of Biology 81:169-170.

2007  Themes on Variation. (Review of Variation: A Central Concept in Biology. B. Hallgrímsson & Brian K. Hall, eds. Elsevier Academic Press). BioScience 57:372-373.


2009    An Uneven Guide to Eco-Devo. (Review of Ecological Developmental Biology: Integrating Epigenetics, Medicine and Evolution. S.F. Gilbert and D. Epel. Sinauer Associates). BioScience 59: 1000-1001.